Androcentric Most psychological knowledge is androcentric, or male-centered.
First/Second/Third Wave Feminism Lost movement in the 20s when women gained the ability to vote. Rebirth of women’s movement in the 60s, AWP (Association for Women in Psychology) formed in 69. Third wave, 1990s, Riot grrrls, zines, joys of women’s sexuality, empowerment, self-reliance, acknowledging faults and limitations of second wave.
Mary Calkins Permitted to take courses at Harvard when it was a male-only university. Sat behind a curtain and received private tutoring. Despite an impressive PhD dissertation, she did not receive a PhD because she was a woman. She was the first women president of the APA (American Psychological Association) in 1905.
LIberal Feminism Beliefs of equality, considers how children are socialized to accept gender roles, sex discrimination in employment, and emphasizes similarities between men and women.
Radical Feminism Emphasizes mens control over women as being the greatest problem. Some support separatism, communities of only women in an attempt to escape the patriarchy.
Womanism (Woman-of-color feminism) Began with the criticism of the woman’s movement excluding women of color. Women of color see men as brothers in the fight for equality, not as oppressors.
Cultural Feminism Unlike liberal feminism, focuses on the differences between the genders. The social behaviors of women are deeply engrained and essential, as well as unlikely to change.
Global Feminism Related to women across cultures. Issues of importance would be healthcare, sweatshop labor, sex trafficking, or violence. Emphasizes a recognition that western civilization does not have all the right answers for everyone across the world.
Gender Learned and cultural (Sex is to gender as nature is to nurture)
Legitimizing Myths Attitudes that justify social practice. For instance women are helpless and overemotional and this is why we must protect them.
Intergroup bias effect When you perceive your group in a better light than others. (Ex: We’re the logical thinkers.)
Outgroup homogeneity effect When you perceive other groups and their members as all being the same. (Ex: All republicans are assholes)
Self-fulfilling prophecy When we expect something, the expectation that will happen can make it come true. (Ex: I am not going to be happy today, you are not happy today.)
Doing Gender Gender as a social performance – people constructed out of the expectations for what they should be.
Intrusive Interruptions When someone interrupts you during a conversation in order to steal the conversation. More common among men.
Visual dominance A pattern of eye contact among people of power. They will look you in the eye when talking to you, but look away when it is the subordinates turn to speak.
Double binds Damned if you do / damned if you don’t. (Ex: Virgin/Whore dichotomy)
Ambivalent, hostile, and benevolent sexism Ambivalent sexism is both hostile and benevolent. For instance, women who work may be intelligent but they are also aggressive. Hostile sexism exists mostly within those who believe women are inferior. These remarks are more obvious (ex: Rush Limbaugh calling someone a slut.) Benevolent sexism instead emphasizes that women should be cherished and put on a pedestal. May help women do things because “they shouldn’t have to do that!”